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Transistor Fundamentals. Volume 2, Basic Transi...

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electrical signals and power. It is one of the basic building blocks of modern electronics.[1] It is composed of semiconductor material, usually with at least three terminals for connection to an electronic circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Some transistors are packaged individually, but many more in miniature form are found embedded in integrated circuits.

Transistor fundamentals. Volume 2, Basic transi...

The basic principle of the field-effect transistor (FET) was first proposed by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld when he filed a patent for a device similar to MESFETin 1926, and for an insulated-gate field-effect transistor in 1928.[46][47] The FET concept was later also theorized by engineer Oskar Heil in the 1930s and by William Shockley in the 1940s.

The MOSFET is by far the most widely used transistor, in applications ranging from computers and electronics[53] to communications technology such as smartphones.[68] It has been considered the most important transistor,[69] possibly the most important invention in electronics,[70] and the device that enabled modern electronics.[71] It has been the basis of modern digital electronics since the late 20th century, paving the way for the digital age.[72] The US Patent and Trademark Office calls it a "groundbreaking invention that transformed life and culture around the world".[68] Its ability to be mass-produced by a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication), from relatively basic materials, allows astonishingly low per-transistor costs. MOSFETs are the most numerously produced artificial objects in history, with more than 13 sextillion manufactured by 2018.[73] 041b061a72


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