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Lincoln Bell
Lincoln Bell

Chemistry The Central Science 13th Edition Download _TOP_

2. ChemistryT h e C e n t r a l S c i e n c e 13TH EditionTheodore L. Brown University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign H.Eugene LeMay, Jr. University of Nevada, Reno Bruce E. BurstenUniversity of Tennessee, Knoxville Catherine J. Murphy Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Patrick M. Woodward The Ohio StateUniversity Matthew W. Stoltzfus The Ohio State University BostonColumbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle RiverAmsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris MontralToronto Delhi Mexico City So Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul SingaporeTaipei Tokyo 3. Editor in Chief, Chemistry: Adam Jaworski SeniorAcquisitions Editor: Terry Haugen Acquisitions Editor: Chris Hess,Ph.D. Executive Marketing Manager: Jonathan Cottrell Associate TeamLead, Program Management, Chemistry and Geoscience: Jessica MoroEditorial Assistant: Lisa Tarabokjia/Caitlin Falco MarketingAssistant: Nicola Houston Director of Development: Jennifer HartDevelopment Editor, Text: Carol Pritchard-Martinez Team Lead,Project Management, Chemistry and Geosciences: Gina M. CheselkaProject Manager: Beth Sweeten Full-Service ProjectManagement/Composition: Greg Johnson, PreMediaGlobal OperationsSpecialist: Christy Hall Illustrator: Precision Graphics ArtDirector: Mark Ong Interior / Cover Designer: Tamara Newnam ImageLead: Maya Melenchuk Photo Researcher: Kerri Wilson, PreMediaGlobalText Permissions Manager: Alison Bruckner Text PermissionResearcher: Jacqueline Bates, GEX Publishing Services SeniorContent Producer: Kristin Mayo Production Supervisor, Media:Shannon Kong Electrostatic Potential Maps: Richard Johnson,Chemistry Department, University of New Hampshire Cover ImageCredit: Metal-Organic Frameworks by Omar M. Yaghi, University ofCalifornia, Berkeley Credits and acknowledgments borrowed fromother sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbookappear on the appropriate page within the text or on pp. P-1P-2.Copyright 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991,1988, 1985, 1981, 1977 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication isprotected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from thepublisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in aretrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. Toobtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submita written request to Pearson Education, Inc., PermissionsDepartment, 1 Lake Street, Department 1G, Upper Saddle River, NJ07458. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellersto distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Wherethose designations appear in this book, and the publisher was awareof a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initialcaps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-In PublicationData Brown, Theodore L. (Theodore Lawrence), 1928- author.Chemistry the central science.Thirteenth edition / Theodore L.Brown, University of Illinois at Urbana-Chanmpaign, H. EugueneLeMay, Jr., University of Nevada, Reno, Bruce E. Bursten,University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Catherine J. Murphy, Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Chanmpaign, Patrick M. Woodward, The OhioState University, Matthew W. Stoltzfus, The Ohio State University.pages cm Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-0-321-91041-7 ISBN-10:0-321-91041-9 1. Chemistry--Textbooks. I. Title. QD31.3.B765 2014540dc23 2013036724 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10CRK 17 16 15 Student Edition: 0-321-91041-9 /978-0-321-91041-7 Instructors Resource Copy: 0-321-96239-7 /978-0-321-96239-3 4. To our students, whose enthusiasm andcuriosity have often inspired us, and whose questions andsuggestions have sometimes taught us. 5. vi Prefacexx 1Introduction: Matter and Measurement2 2 Atoms, Molecules, andIons40 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry80 4Reactions in Aqueous Solution122 5 Thermochemistry164 6 ElectronicStructure of Atoms212 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements256 8Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding298 9 Molecular Geometry andBonding Theories342 10 Gases398 11 Liquids and IntermolecularForces442 12 Solids and Modern Materials480 13 Properties ofSolutions530 14 Chemical Kinetics574 15 Chemical Equilibrium628 16AcidBase Equilibria670 17 Additional Aspects of AqueousEquilibria724 18 Chemistry of the Environment774 19 ChemicalThermodynamics812 20 Electrochemistry856 21 Nuclear Chemistry908 22Chemistry of the Nonmetals952 23 Transition Metals and CoordinationChemistry996 24 The Chemistry of Life: Organic and BiologicalChemistry1040 Appendices AMathematical Operations1092 BPropertiesof Water1099 CThermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at298.15 K (25 C)1100 DAqueous Equilibrium Constants1103 EStandardReduction Potentials at 25 C1105 Answers to Selected ExercisesA-1Answers to Give It Some ThoughtA-31 Answers to Go FigureA-38Answers to Selected Practice ExercisesA-44 GlossaryG-1 Photo/ArtCreditsP-1 IndexI-1 Brief Contents 6. vii 2Atoms, Molecules, andIons40 2.1The Atomic Theory of Matter42 2.2The Discovery of AtomicStructure43 Cathode Rays and Electrons43 Radioactivity45 TheNuclear Model of the Atom46 2.3The Modern View of AtomicStructure47 Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes49 2.4AtomicWeights50 The Atomic Mass Scale50 Atomic Weight51 2.5The PeriodicTable52 2.6Molecules and Molecular Compounds56 Molecules andChemical Formulas56 Molecular and Empirical Formulas56 PicturingMolecules57 2.7Ions and Ionic Compounds58 Predicting IonicCharges59 Ionic Compounds60 2.8Naming Inorganic Compounds62 Namesand Formulas of Ionic Compounds62 Names and Formulas of Acids67Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds68 2.9Some SimpleOrganic Compounds69 Alkanes69 Some Derivatives of Alkanes70 ChapterSummary and Key Terms72 Learning Outcomes72 Key Equations73Exercises73 Additional Exercises78 A Closer Look Basic Forces49 ACloser Look The Mass Spectrometer52 A Closer Look What Are CoinsMade Of?54 Chemistry and Life Elements Required by LivingOrganisms61 Strategies in Chemistry How to Take a Test71 ContentsPrefacexx 1Introduction: Matter and Measurement2 1.1The Study ofChemistry2 The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry4 WhyStudy Chemistry?5 1.2Classifications of Matter6 States of Matter7Pure Substances7 Elements7Compounds8Mixtures10 1.3Properties ofMatter11 Physical and Chemical Changes12 Separation of Mixtures131.4Units of Measurement14 SI Units15 Length and Mass17Temperature17Derived SI Units19 Volume19Density19 1.5Uncertainty inMeasurement22 Precision and Accuracy22 Significant Figures22Significant Figures in Calculations22 1.6Dimensional Analysis27Using Two or More Conversion Factors28 Conversions InvolvingVolume29 Chapter Summary and Key Terms32 Learning Outcomes32 KeyEquations32 Exercises32 Additional Exercises37 Chemistry Put toWork Chemistry and the Chemical Industry6 A Closer Look TheScientific Method14 Chemistry Put to Work Chemistry in the News20Strategies in Chemistry Estimating Answers28 Strategies inChemistry The Importance of Practice31 Strategies in Chemistry TheFeatures of This Book32 7. viii Contents 3Chemical Reactions andReaction Stoichiometry80 3.1Chemical Equations82 BalancingEquations82 Indicating the States of Reactants and Products853.2Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity86 Combination andDecomposition Reactions86 Combustion Reactions89 3.3FormulaWeights89 Formula and Molecular Weights90 Percentage Compositionfrom Chemical Formulas91 3.4Avogadros Number and the Mole91 MolarMass93 Interconverting Masses and Moles95 Interconverting Massesand Numbers of Particles96 3.5Empirical Formulas from Analyses98Molecular Formulas from Empirical Formulas100 CombustionAnalysis101 3.6Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations1033.7Limiting Reactants106 Theoretical and Percent Yields109 ChapterSummary and Key Terms111 Learning Outcomes111 Key Equations112Exercises112 Additional Exercises118 Integrative Exercises120Design an Experiment120 Strategies in Chemistry Problem Solving92Chemistry and Life Glucose Monitoring95 Strategies in ChemistryDesign an Experiment110 4Reactions in Aqueous Solution1224.1General Properties of Aqueous Solutions124 Electrolytes andNonelectrolytes124 How Compounds Dissolve in Water125 Strong andWeak Electrolytes126 4.2Precipitation Reactions128 SolubilityGuidelines for Ionic Compounds129 Exchange (Metathesis)Reactions130 Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions131 4.3Acids, Bases,and Neutralization Reactions132 Acids132 Bases133 Strong and WeakAcids and Bases133 Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes135Neutralization Reactions and Salts135 Neutralization Reactions withGas Formation138 4.4OxidationReduction Reactions138 Oxidation andReduction138 Oxidation Numbers140 Oxidation of Metals by Acids andSalts142 The Activity Series143 4.5Concentrations of Solutions146Molarity146 Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte147Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume148Dilution1494.6Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis151 Titrations152Chapter Summary and Key Terms155 Learning Outcomes156 KeyEquations156 Exercises156 Additional Exercises161 IntegrativeExercises161 Design an Experiment163 Chemistry Put toWorkAntacids139 Strategies in Chemistry Analyzing ChemicalReactions146 5Thermochemistry164 5.1Energy166 Kinetic Energy andPotential Energy166 Units of Energy168 System and Surroundings169Transferring Energy: Work and Heat169 5.2The First Law ofThermodynamics170 Internal Energy171 Relating E to Heat and Work172Endothermic and Exothermic Processes173 State Functions174 8.Contents ix 5.3Enthalpy175 PressureVolume Work175 EnthalpyChange177 5.4Enthalpies of Reaction179 5.5Calorimetry181 HeatCapacity and Specific Heat181 Constant-Pressure Calorimetry183 BombCalorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)185 5.6Hesss Law1875.7Enthalpies of Formation189 Using Enthalpies of Formation toCalculate Enthalpies of Reaction192 5.8Foods and Fuels194Foods194Fuels197Other Energy Sources198 Chapter Summary and KeyTerms200 Learning Outcomes201 Key Equations202 Exercises202Additional Exercises209 Integrative Exercises210Design anExperiment211 A Closer Look Energy, Enthalpy, and PV Work178Strategies in Chemistry Using Enthalpy as a Guide181 Chemistry andLife The Regulation of Body Temperature186 Chemistry Put to WorkThe Scientific and Political Challenges of Biofuels198 6ElectronicStructure of Atoms212 6.1The Wave Nature of Light214 6.2QuantizedEnergy and Photons216 Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy216The Photoelectric Effect and Photons217 6.3Line Spectra and theBohr Model219 Line Spectra219 Bohrs Model220 The Energy States ofthe Hydrogen Atom221 Limitations of the Bohr Model223 6.4The WaveBehavior of Matter223 The Uncertainty Principle225 6.5QuantumMechanics and Atomic Orbitals226 Orbitals and Quantum Numbers2286.6Representations of Orbitals230 The s Orbitals230 The pOrbitals233 The d and f Orbitals233 6.7Many-Electron Atoms234Orbitals and Their Energies234 Electron Spin and the PauliExclusion Principle235 6.8Electron Configurations237 Hunds Rule237Condensed Electron Configurations239Transition Metals240 TheLanthanides and Actinides240 6.9Electron Configurations and thePeriodic Table241 Anomalous Electron Configurations245 ChapterSummary and Key Terms246 Learning Outcomes247 Key Equations247Exercises248 Additional Exercises252 Integrative Exercises255Design an Experiment255 A Closer Look Measurement and theUncertainty Principle225 A Closer Look Thought Experiments andSchrdingers Cat227 A Closer Look Probability Density and RadialProbability Functions232 Chemistry and Life Nuclear Spin andMagnetic Resonance Imaging236 7Periodic Properties of theElements256 7.1Development of the Periodic Table258 7.2EffectiveNuclear Charge259 7.3Sizes of Atoms and Ions262 Periodic Trends inAtomic Radii264 Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii265 7.4IonizationEnergy268 Variations in Successive Ionization Energies268 PeriodicTrends in First Ionization Energies268 Electron Configurations ofIons271 7.5Electron Affinity272 7.6Metals, Nonmetals, andMetalloids273 Metals274Nonmetals276Metalloids277 9. x Contents7.7Trends for Group 1A and Group 2A Metals278 Group 1A: The AlkaliMetals278 Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals281 7.8Trends forSelected Nonmetals282 Hydrogen282 Group 6A: The Oxygen Group283Group 7A: The Halogens284 Group 8A: The Noble Gases286 ChapterSummary and Key Terms288 Learning Outcomes289 Key Equations289Exercises289 Additional Exercises294 Integrative Exercises296Design an Experiment297 A Closer Look Effective Nuclear Charge261Chemistry Put to Work Ionic Size and Lithium-Ion Batteries267Chemistry and Life The Improbable Development of Lithium Drugs2818Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding298 8.1Lewis Symbols and theOctet Rule300 The Octet Rule300 8.2Ionic Bonding301 Energetics ofIonic Bond Formation302 Electron Configurations of Ions of the s-and p-Block Elements305 Transition Metal Ions306 8.3CovalentBonding306 Lewis Structures307 Multiple Bonds308 8.4Bond Polarityand Electronegativity309 Electronegativity309 Electronegativity andBond Polarity310Dipole Moments311 Differentiating Ionic andCovalent Bonding314 8.5Drawing Lewis Structures315 Formal Chargeand Alternative Lewis Structures317 8.6Resonance Structures320Resonance in Benzene322 8.7Exceptions to the Octet Rule322 OddNumber of Electrons323 Less Than an Octet of Valence Electrons323More Than an Octet of Valence Electrons324 8.8Strengths and Lengthsof Covalent Bonds325 Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies ofReactions327 Bond Enthalpy and Bond Length329 Chapter Summary andKey Terms332 Learning Outcomes333 Key Equations333 Exercises333Additional Exercises338 Integrative Exercises340 Design anExperiment341 A Closer Look Calculation of Lattice Energies: TheBornHaber Cycle304 A Closer Look Oxidation Numbers, Formal Charges,and Actual Partial Charges319 Chemistry Put to Work Explosives andAlfred Nobel330 9Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories3429.1Molecular Shapes344 9.2The Vsepr Model347 Effect of NonbondingElectrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles351 Molecules withExpanded Valence Shells352 Shapes of Larger Molecules3559.3Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity356 9.4Covalent Bondingand Orbital Overlap358 9.5Hybrid Orbitals359 sp Hybrid Orbitals360sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals361 Hypervalent Molecules362 HybridOrbital Summary364 9.6Multiple Bonds365 Resonance Structures,Delocalization, and p Bonding368 General Conclusions about s and pBonding372 9.7Molecular Orbitals373 Molecular Orbitals of theHydrogen Molecule373 Bond Order375 9.8Period 2 DiatomicMolecules376 Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2377 MolecularOrbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals377 Electron Configurations for B2through Ne2381 Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties383Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules384 10. Contents xi Chapter Summaryand Key Terms386 Learning Outcomes387 Key Equations388 Exercises388Additional Exercises393 Integrative Exercises396 Design anExperiment397 Chemistry and Life The Chemistry of Vision372 ACloser Look Phases in Atomic and Molecular Orbitals379 ChemistryPut to Work Orbitals and Energy385 10 Gases398 10.1Characteristicsof Gases400 10.2Pressure401 Atmospheric Pressure and theBarometer401 10.3The Gas Laws404 The PressureVolume Relationship:Boyles Law404 The TemperatureVolume Relationship: Charless Law406The QuantityVolume Relationship: Avogadros Law406 10.4The Ideal-GasEquation408 Relating the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws41010.5Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation412 Gas Densitiesand Molar Mass413 Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions414 10.6GasMixtures and Partial Pressures415 Partial Pressures and MoleFractions417 10.7The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases418Distributions of Molecular Speed419 Application ofKinetic-Molecular Theory to the Gas Laws420 10.8Molecular Effusionand Diffusion421 Grahams Law of Effusion423Diffusion and Mean FreePath424 10.9Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior426 The vander Waals Equation428 Chapter Summary and Key Terms431 LearningOutcomes431 Key Equations432 Exercises432 Additional Exercises438Integrative Exercises440 Design an Experiment441 Strategies inChemistry Calculations Involving Many Variables410 A Closer LookThe Ideal-Gas Equation421 Chemistry Put to Work Gas Separations42511Liquids and Intermolecular Forces442 11.1A Molecular Comparisonof Gases, Liquids, and Solids444 11.2Intermolecular Forces446Dispersion Forces447DipoleDipole Forces448 Hydrogen Bonding449IonDipole Forces452 Comparing Intermolecular Forces452 11.3SelectProperties of Liquids455 Viscosity455Surface Tension456CapillaryAction456 11.4Phase Changes457 Energy Changes Accompanying PhaseChanges457Heating Curves459Critical Temperature and Pressure46011.5Vapor Pressure461 Volatility, Vapor Pressure, andTemperature462 Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point463 11.6PhaseDiagrams464 The Phase Diagrams of H2O and CO2465 11.7LiquidCrystals467 Types of Liquid Crystals467 Chapter Summary and KeyTerms470 Learning Outcomes471 Exercises471 Additional Exercises477Integrative Exercises478 Design an Experiment479 Chemistry Put toWorkIonic Liquids454 A Closer Look The ClausiusClapeyronEquation463 11. xii Contents 12Solids and Modern Materials48012.1Classification of Solids480 12.2Structures of Solids482Crystalline and Amorphous Solids482 Unit Cells and CrystalLattices483 Filling the Unit Cell485 12.3Metallic Solids486 TheStructures of Metallic Solids487 Close Packing488Alloys49112.4Metallic Bonding494 Electron-Sea Model494 MolecularOrbitalModel495 12.5Ionic Solids498 Structures of Ionic Solids49812.6Molecular Solids502 12.7Covalent-Network Solids503Semiconductors504Semiconductor Doping506 12.8Polymers507 MakingPolymers509 Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers51112.9Nanomaterials514 Semiconductors on the Nanoscale514 Metals onthe Nanoscale515 Carbons on the Nanoscale516 Chapter Summary andKey Terms519 Learning Outcomes520 Key Equation520 Exercises521Additional Exercises527 Integrative Exercises528 Design anExperiment529 A Closer Look X-ray Diffraction486 Chemistry Put toWork Alloys of Gold494 Chemistry Put to WorkSolid-State Lighting508Chemistry Put to WorkRecycling Plastics511 13Properties ofSolutions530 13.1The Solution Process530 The Natural Tendencytoward Mixing532 The Effect of Intermolecular Forces on SolutionFormation532 Energetics of Solution Formation533 Solution Formationand Chemical Reactions535 13.2Saturated Solutions and Solubility53613.3Factors Affecting Solubility538 SoluteSolvent Interactions538Pressure Effects541 Temperature Effects543 13.4Expressing SolutionConcentration544 Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb544 Mole Fraction,Molarity, and Molality545 Converting Concentration Units54713.5Colligative Properties548 Vapor-Pressure Lowering548Boiling-Point Elevation551 Freezing-Point Depression552Osmosis554Determination of Molar Mass from ColligativeProperties557 13.6Colloids559 Hydrophilic and HydrophobicColloids560 Colloidal Motion in Liquids562 Chapter Summary and KeyTerms564 Learning Outcomes565 Key Equations565 Exercises566Additional Exercises571 Integrative Exercises572Design anExperiment573 Chemistry and Life Fat-Soluble and Water-SolubleVitamins539 Chemistry and Life Blood Gases and Deep-Sea Diving544 ACloser Look Ideal Solutions with Two or More Volatile Components550A Closer Look The Vant Hoff Factor558 Chemistry and LifeSickle-Cell Anemia562 12. Contents xiii 14 Chemical Kinetics57414.1Factors that Affect Reaction Rates576 14.2Reaction Rates577Change of Rate with Time579 Instantaneous Rate579 Reaction Ratesand Stoichiometry580 14.3Concentration and Rate Laws581 ReactionOrders: The Exponents in the Rate Law584 Magnitudes and Units ofRate Constants585 Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws58614.4The Change of Concentration with Time587 First-OrderReactions587 Second-Order Reactions589 Zero-Order Reactions591Half-Life591 14.5Temperature and Rate593 The Collision Model593 TheOrientation Factor594Activation Energy594The ArrheniusEquation596De


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