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Everett Miller
Everett Miller

Surgical Operation


There are many reasons to have surgery. Some operations can relieve or prevent pain. Others can reduce a symptom of a problem or improve some body function. Some surgeries are done to find a problem. For example, a surgeon may do a biopsy, which involves removing a piece of tissue to examine under a microscope. Some surgeries, like heart surgery, can save your life.




surgical operation



Some operations that once needed large incisions (cuts in the body) can now be done using much smaller cuts. This is called laparoscopic surgery. Surgeons insert a thin tube with a camera to see, and use small tools to do the surgery.


Appendectomy. An appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix, a small tube that branches off the large intestine, to treat acute appendicitis. Appendicitis is the acute inflammation of this tube due to infection.


Carotid endarterectomy. Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove blockage from carotid arteries, the arteries located in the neck that supply blood to the brain. Left untreated, a blocked carotid artery can lead to a stroke.


Cesarean section (also called a c-section). Cesarean section is the surgical delivery of a baby by an incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus. This procedure is done when doctors determine it a safer alternative than a vaginal delivery for the mother, baby, or both.


Debridement of wound, burn, or infection. Debridement involves the surgical removal of foreign material and/or dead, damaged, or infected tissue from a wound or burn. By removing the diseased or dead tissue, healthy tissue is exposed to allow for more effective healing.


Dilation and curettage (also called D & C). A D&C is a minor operation in which the cervix is dilated (expanded) so that the cervical canal and uterine lining can be scraped with a curette (spoon-shaped instrument).


Free skin graft. A skin graft involves detaching healthy skin from one part of the body to repair areas of lost or damaged skin in another part of the body. Skin grafts are often done as a result of burns, injury, or surgical removal of diseased skin. They are most often done when the area is too large to be repaired by stitching or natural healing.


Hysterectomy. A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of a woman's uterus. This may be done laparoscopically through an abdominal incision or vaginally. The ovaries may be removed at the same time.


Hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy is a surgical procedure used to help diagnose and treat many uterine disorders. The hysteroscope (a viewing instrument inserted through the vagina for a visual exam of the canal of the cervix and the interior of the uterus) can transmit an image of the uterine canal and cavity to a television screen.


Prostatectomy. The surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland, the sex gland in men that surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra--the tube that carries urine away from the bladder. A prostatectomy may be done for an enlarged prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or if the prostate gland is cancerous.


Surgical care has been an essential component of health care worldwide for over a century. As the incidences of traumatic injuries, cancers and cardiovascular disease continue to rise, the impact of surgical intervention on public health systems will continue to grow.


Pulse oximeters are medical devices that monitor the level of oxygen in apatient's blood and alert the health-care worker if oxygen levels dropbelow safe levels, allowing rapid intervention. These devices areessential in any setting in which a patient's blood oxygen levelsrequires monitoring like operations, emergency and intensive care, andtreatment and recovery in hospital wards.


The project was developed by several partners composing the SAFROS consortium: hospitals with worldwide reputations to provide medical knowledge and to validate the approach; leading European research groups in tele-robotics and surgical robotics; innovative companies to develop new technologies for surgical simulators; renowned educational organizations to provide innovative surgeon training; and WHO Patient Safety to offer global expertise in safety guidelines for patient surgery. By participating in this project and using robotic surgery as an example, WHO Patient Safety wanted to better understand how to ensure the inclusion of patient safety in the development of new technologies and devise appropriate methodologies for doing so.


The act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The person or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery and a surgeon's assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance. A surgical team is made up of the surgeon, the surgeon's assistant, an anaesthetist, a circulating nurse and a surgical technologist. Surgery usually spans from minutes to hours, but it is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term "surgery" can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or, in British English, simply the office of a physician,[1] dentist, or veterinarian.


As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a person's tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound. Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; so-called "noninvasive surgery" usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being excised (e.g. laser ablation of the cornea) or to a radiosurgical procedure (e.g. irradiation of a tumor).


At a hospital, modern surgery is often performed in an operating theater using surgical instruments, an operating table, and other equipment. Among United States hospitalizations for non-maternal and non-neonatal conditions in 2012, more than one-fourth of stays and half of hospital costs involved stays that included operating room (OR) procedures.[6] The environment and procedures used in surgery are governed by the principles of aseptic technique: the strict separation of "sterile" (free of microorganisms) things from "unsterile" or "contaminated" things. All surgical instruments must be sterilized, and an instrument must be replaced or re-sterilized if it becomes contaminated (i.e. handled in an unsterile manner, or allowed to touch an unsterile surface). Operating room staff must wear sterile attire (scrubs, a scrub cap, a sterile surgical gown, sterile latex or non-latex polymer gloves and a surgical mask), and they must scrub hands and arms with an approved disinfectant agent before each procedure.


Prior to surgery, the person is given a medical examination, receives certain pre-operative tests, and their physical status is rated according to the ASA physical status classification system. If these results are satisfactory, the person requiring surgery signs a consent form and is given a surgical clearance. If the procedure is expected to result in significant blood loss, an autologous blood donation may be made some weeks prior to surgery. If the surgery involves the digestive system, the person requiring surgery may be instructed to perform a bowel prep by drinking a solution of polyethylene glycol the night before the procedure. People preparing for surgery are also instructed to abstain from food or drink (an NPO order after midnight on the night before the procedure), to minimize the effect of stomach contents on pre-operative medications and reduce the risk of aspiration if the person vomits during or after the procedure.


Some medical systems have a practice of routinely performing chest x-rays before surgery. The premise behind this practice is that the physician might discover some unknown medical condition which would complicate the surgery, and that upon discovering this with the chest x-ray, the physician would adapt the surgery practice accordingly.[7] However, medical specialty professional organizations recommend against routine pre-operative chest x-rays for people who have an unremarkable medical history and presented with a physical exam which did not indicate a chest x-ray.[7] Routine x-ray examination is more likely to result in problems like misdiagnosis, overtreatment, or other negative outcomes than it is to result in a benefit to the person.[7] Likewise, other tests including complete blood count, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis should not be done unless the results of these tests can help evaluate surgical risk.[8]


The pre-operative holding area[9] is so important in the surgical phase since here is where most of the family members can see who the staff of the surgery will be, also this area is where the nurses in charge to give information to the family members of the patient. In the pre-operative holding area, the person preparing for surgery changes out of his or her street clothes and is asked to confirm the details of his or her surgery. A set of vital signs are recorded, a peripheral IV line is placed, and pre-operative medications (antibiotics, sedatives, etc.) are given.[10] When the person enters the operating room, the skin surface to be operated on, called the operating field, is cleaned and prepared by applying an antiseptic (ideally chlorhexidine gluconate in alcohol, as this is twice as effective as povidone-iodine at reducing the risk of infection).[11] If hair is present at the surgical site, it is clipped off prior to prep application. The person is assisted by an anesthesiologist or resident to make a specific surgical position, then sterile drapes are used to cover the surgical site or at least a wide area surrounding the operating field; the drapes are clipped to a pair of poles near the head of the bed to form an "ether screen", which separates the anesthetist/anesthesiologist's working area (unsterile) from the surgical site (sterile).[12] 041b061a72


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