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Everett Miller
Everett Miller

Close-Up



A close-up or closeup in filmmaking, television production, still photography, and the comic strip medium is a type of shot that tightly frames a person or object. Close-ups are one of the standard shots used regularly with medium and long shots (cinematic techniques). Close-ups display the most detail, but they do not include the broader scene. Moving toward or away from a close-up is a common type of zooming. A close up is taken from head to neck, giving the viewer a detailed view of the subject's face.




Close-Up


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Most early filmmakers, such as Thomas Edison, Auguste and Louis Lumière and Georges Méliès, tended not to use close-ups and preferred to frame their subjects in long shots, similar to the stage. Film historians disagree as to the filmmaker who first used a close-up. One of the best claims is for George Albert Smith in Hove, who used medium close-ups in films as early as 1898 and by 1900 was incorporating extreme close-ups in films such as As Seen Through a Telescope and Grandma's Reading Glass. In 1901, James Williamson, also working in Hove, made perhaps the most extreme close-up of all in The Big Swallow in which his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. D. W. Griffith, who pioneered screen cinematographic techniques and narrative format, is associated with popularizing the close up with the success of his films. For example, one of Griffith's short films, The Lonedale Operator (1911), makes significant use of a close-up of a wrench that a character pretends is a gun. Lillian Gish remarked on Griffith's pioneering use of the close-up:


Close-ups are used in many ways and for many reasons. They are often employed as cutaways from a more distant shot to show detail, such as characters' emotions or some intricate activity with their hands. Close cuts to characters' faces are used far more often in television than in movies[citation needed] and are especially common in soap operas[citation needed]. For a director, deliberately avoiding close-ups may create in the audience an emotional distance from the subject matter[citation needed].


Close-ups are used for distinguishing main characters. Major characters are often given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups. At the close of Sunset Boulevard (1959), the main character, a faded star under the delusion that she is making a triumphant return to acting, declaims melodramatically, "All right, Mr. DeMille, I'm ready for my close-up."


Close-up shots do not show the subject in the broad context of its surroundings. Low-budget films may use close-ups to avoid the expense of set construction. If overused, close-ups may leave viewers uncertain as to what they are seeing. Close-ups are rarely done with wide-angle lenses because perspective causes objects closer to the lens to be unnaturally enlarged. That may convey a sense of confusion, intoxication, or another unusual mental state.[citation needed]


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The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of far-off and close-up diets on prepartum metabolism, postpartum metabolism, and postpartum performance of multiparous Holstein cows. From dry-off to -25 d relative to expected parturition (far-off dry period), cows were fed a control diet to meet National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for net energy for lactation (NE(L)) at ad libitum intake (100NRC; n = 25) or a higher nutrient density diet, which was fed for either ad libitum intake to provide at least 150% of calculated NE(L) requirement (150NRC; n = 25) or at restricted intake to provide 80% of calculated NE(L) requirements (80NRC; n = 24). From -24 d relative to expected parturition until parturition (close-up period), cows were fed a diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient recommendations at either ad libitum intake (n = 38) or restricted intake (n = 36) to provide 80% of the calculated NE(L) requirement. After parturition, all cows were fed a lactation diet and measurements were made through 56 d in milk (DIM). Prepartum metabolism was consistent with the plane of nutrition. During the first 10 DIM, far-off treatments had significant carryover effects on dry matter intake, energy balance, serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration, and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Cows with the lower energy balance during the far-off period (100NRC and 80NRC) had higher dry matter intake and energy balance and lower serum NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate during the first 10 DIM. There were no effects of close-up diet and no interactions of far-off and close-up treatments. During the first 56 DIM, there were no residual effects of far-off or close-up diets on dry matter intake, milk yield or composition, body weight, body condition score, serum glucose and insulin concentrations, or muscle lipid concentration. Serum NEFA was higher for 150NRC than 80NRC; 100NRC was intermediate. Thus, the effects of far-off and close-up treatments on postpartum variables diminished as lactation progressed. Overfeeding during the far-off period had a greater negative impact on peripartum metabolism than did differences in close-up period nutrition.


While many close-up shots involve faces, some close-up shots focus on important scene details that might add to the exposition of the story, including a clue, foreshadowing a later element of plot development, or helping to set the mood or tone of the film.


Within the umbrella of close-up shots, filmmakers can choose from several subtypes, with each supplying a specific feeling or nuance to the scene. These five types of close-up shots are frequently used in filmmaking:


Make sure you maintain the same elements like light, temperature, and weather in any close-up shots. You might film close-ups and establishing or master shots at different times in the shooting day, so taking care to maintain continuity is vital for an effective close-up shot.


The unforgettable scene in which Heather Donahue holds her handheld camera to her own face for an extreme close-up, showing intense emotions about their documentary project, is probably one of the most famous extreme close-ups of all time. 041b061a72


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